Manual for laying


Laying

When you receive the material ordered, after having checked that the goods delivered correspond to the shipping documents, and in any case before laying, it is important to check carefully that the tone, caliber and grade of material match your order. It is also necessary to check that the material presents no visible defects (as defined by the general terms of sale and by table 2 of this manual), as no complaints will be accepted once the material has been laid, if such defects were visible beforehand.
As the shading is a characteristic of ceramic products, we request that you check the value V- SHADE of the tiles you wish to fit. To obtain the best aesthetic result possible, the material should be laid using tiles from different boxes and thus obtain a varied mixture.
For products with vein markings, as with natural stone effect tiles, we recommend arranging the vein markings of the slabs in such a way that the best aesthetic and chromatic effect is obtained.
The end customer must assure that the environmental and lighting conditions for which he is responsible are suitable to allow the tile fitter to carry out his work in a reliable manner. He must therefore check the materials and the tile-laying operation, as described above.
We recommend that the tiles are glued to the substrate using specific, high-performance adhesives. Please remember that the substrate must be stable, dry and properly prepared for laying. It is necessary in any case to follow the instructions provided by the manufacturers of substrates and the specific adhesives used. Cement-based adhesives must be applied at room temperature, generally between +5° and 30/35° C.
The most suitable adhesives for the laying of Supergres materials should be labelled according to the currently valid European Standard, EN12004.
When laying the material, no marks should be made on the surface with pencils (graphite) or permanent markers, particularly on polished surfaces.
Although it is not necessary to dampen the tiles before laying, if the tiles are very dusty, it is advisable to rinse quickly in clean water.
In the period after the surfaces have been tiled until they are handed over the end customer, the ceramic tiles must be kept clean and free of cement, sand, mortar and any other material that might cause stains and/or mechanical surface abrasion. The finished surfaces must be protected from potential damage or contaminations owing to the foreseeable presence of other tradesman such as painters and decorators, electricians, carpenters etc.
For continuous surfaces we recommend staggered layouts, with a distance between edges of no more than 20 cm. For rectified materials, the minimum joint prescribed is 2 mm (this method allows the grout to have a better grip on the sides of the slabs, greater absorption of any movements of the substrate and consequently of the slabs themselves). For non-rectified materials the minimum joint prescribed is 5 mm.
Supergres will not accept any complaints for rectified tiles that have been laid leaving joints of less than 2 mm.
Although products in Supergres porcelain stoneware are highly resistant materials, they can be shaped (to create worktops, stairs ...) and drilled to fit around pipes and other fittings etc, using purpose-built diamond abrasive discs and other suitable equipment.

 

Warning

For material that has already been laid, Supergres:

  • DOES NOT ACCEPT ANY COMPLAINTS FOR VISIBLE DEFECTS, AS DEFINED IN TABLE 2 OF THIS MANUAL
  • DOES NOT ACCEPT LIABILITY FOR THE QUALITY OF THE TILED SURFACE BUT ONLY FOR THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATERIAL SUPPLIED.

Once the material has been laid, it is wise to keep aside a few tiles for possible future repairs or to have a sample of the material in the event of complaints.

 

Joints and grouting

In large, open spaces it is absolutely essential to position the expansion joints at regular intervals; in smaller rooms, on the other hand, it is sufficient to leave a slight space between the tiled surface and the walls around the room, which will be hidden by the skirting board. The tiles must be laid under the supervision of a planner or site manager, who must ensure that the work is carried out in accordance with the standards in force in the respective country.
For the use of epoxy grouting or the addition of resins or similar substances, it is important to properly follow the manufacturer's instructions as the fact such products harden more quickly requires greater attention. We also believe it is important to carry out a cleaning test on a part of the flooring.
Especially for lapped and polished products, we suggest using grouts that match the colour of the tiles (e.g. avoid using black grout with white tiles).
It is important to remove any excess grouting immediately and accurately after application while still fresh, using a sponge and plenty of water.
A few days after laying, once the joints are completely dry, it is essential to thoroughly clean the tiled surface using buffered acids (see the following chapter: Cleaning "after laying"), in order to completely remove all residual substances.

Some examples of "acid"-based detergents designed specifically for this purpose are:

 

Dry Installation

For information and recommendations concerning the installation systems please refer to the page Floor tiles 20 mm.
 

Warning

For material that has already been laid, Supergres:

  • DOES NOT ACCEPT ANY COMPLAINTS FOR VISIBLE DEFECTS, AS DEFINED IN TABLE 2 OF THIS MANUAL
  • DOES NOT ACCEPT LIABILITY FOR THE QUALITY OF THE TILED SURFACE BUT ONLY FOR THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATERIAL SUPPLIED.

Once the material has been laid, it is wise to keep aside a few tiles for possible future repairs or to have a sample of the material in the event of complaints.

 

Table 2 - Visible Defects

Type of defect Description Exceptions
CALIBER Tiles with different dimensions (Width/Length) in the same batch (Caliber), with deviations exceeding the tolerances claimed on the technical specification sheet. /
PLANARITY Tiles that are concave or convex (curved at the edges), have raised or lowered corners (warpage) with deviations exceeding the tolerances claimed on the technical specification sheet. /
ORTHOGONALITY – STRAIGHTNESS Tiles with edges that are not straight (and not orthogonal (“trapezoid effect”) with deviations exceeding the tolerances claimed in the technical specification sheets. /
THICKNESS Tiles with differing thicknesses in the same box with deviations exceeding the tolerances claimed on the technical specification sheet. /
CRACKS Tiles with cracks running parallel or orthogonally to the edge, or surface cracks leading to the immediate detachment of bits of the surface coating when the tiles are tapped to level the surface. /
CHIPPING Tiles with broken corners and/or edges inside the box. /
SURFACE DEFECTS Tiles with (pin) holes, depressions, dimples, puckering, any contamination in the ceramic body; visible signs of brands/trademarks (left by the back of other ceramic tiles) on the surface. If suction pads leave visible signs for a few seconds in humid conditions, this is not considered a defect of the tile, as such signs are not visible in normal conditions.
DECORATIVE DEFECTS Tiles with defects in the silk-screen printing, glazing, droplets and lines created during digital printing. /
COLOUR DEFECTS Tiles with a tone of colour that differs excessively from the reference piece and/or sample provided to the customer. /
MIXED TONES Tiles in the same batch with a colour shading level above the V-Shade stated in the catalogue. /
LAPPING/POLISHING DEFECTS Tiles on which the surface presents an excessive number of "pinholes" or appears to "peel" (the colour of the ceramic body resurfaces), that have scratched and/or opaque edges, surface scratches of a semicircular shape, … /
CUTTING PROBLEM – FLAKING Tiles that chip, flake or break when straight cuts or rectangular/round holes are made in the tile. /
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Cleaning "after laying"


Porcelain stoneware

Properly cleaning the tiles after they have been laid is crucial. If residues of the grouting used is removed inaccurately or too late, it may leave stains that are difficult to remove, and create a film of cement on the floor that can absorb any form of dirt.
It is essential to loosen and eliminate these residues completely using buffered acids diluted in water (always follow the instructions provided on the box), which will then have to be removed quickly by rinsing the entire floor with plenty of clean water.
We advise repeating this washing and rinsing operation several times until any stains or residues are completely removed.
We suggest carrying out a preliminary test on a sample surface of several metres; if the results are good, you can then clean the entire surface.
After this, the floor must then be cleaned thoroughly with a basic or alkaline detergent to degrease the surface. This is because acidic detergents may leave a film of grease on the floor that could trap dirt.

White body wall coverings

It is essential to clean the tiles after laying for the purpose of all subsequent maintenance operations: in this way, any residues of grouting as well as the normal dirt created during building works are eliminated, such as mortar, adhesive, paint etc. Once the grouting has properly dried, clean the surface with a neutral detergent, complying strictly with the instructions for use on the box or package.

Decorative trims and special inserts with relief patterns and/or precious metals (gold – silver)

Great attention must be paid during both the cleaning phase and the laying phase; it is vital to avoid the use of abrasive products that might scratch or damage the surface. For the cleaning of surfaces in Supergres, we recommend using exclusively a soft cloth with warm water and alcohol.

 

Everyday cleaning

Once the surface has been cleaned “after laying” (see previous chapter), for everyday cleaning we recommend the use of a neutral detergent.
Avoid using widely available detergents containing waxes and polishing additives that can deposit an undesired coaching on the flooring. We strictly advise against the use of waxes greasy soaps, fillers and various treatments (water and oil repellent) on the Supergres product, as they are not necessary. If the above treatments have been applied they will firstly need to be removed from the flooring using specific products following the manufacturer’s instructions.
In the case of coatings created by soap, lime scale or dirt, you will need an acidic detergent, diluted in water as appropriate (always follow the instructions on the label).
It should be noted that is hydrofluoric acid (HF) and its derivatives may damage the tiles permanently.
For routine cleaning operations we recommend the use of bleach or ammonia, appropriately diluted in water.
For all lapped or polished surfaces, the use of non-abrasive cleaning equipment is necessary to prevent the surface from losing its shine or becoming scratched.
We also recommend leaving the floor to dry properly to prevent stains from forming.

 

Extraordinary cleaning

In the case of particular and/or particularly stubborn stains, we recommend using specific detergents as those indicated in Table 1: "cleaning products". It should furthermore not be forgotten that the removal of any type of stain is easier when the stain is still fresh.
It is always important to test the detergents on a small area before applying to the entire surface, particularly in the case of porcelain stoneware with a lapped or polished finish.

 

Table 1 - Cleaning products

Type of dirt Solution Detergents/Manufacturer
limescale, carbon, cement, chalk, mortar, pencil, metal residue, rust, cement grout, coloured grout, wall tempera Acid Solution DETERDEK/FILA 
SERVICE SOLVACID/GEAL
CEMENT REMOVER/FABER
KERANET/MAPEI
DELTA PLUS/ KERAKOLL
BONACLEAN/BONASYSTEM
beer, coffee, coke, wine, ice cream, tire marks, fat, ketchup, mayonnaise, jam, mustard, lipstick, rubber soles, hair dye, urine, vomit Alkaline solution PS87/FILA
DETERFLASH/GEAL
ALKALINE CLEANER/FABER
AMMONIACA/UNIVERSALE
stains from suction cups, tar, candle wax, protective wax, glue, chewing gum, ink, adhesive tape residue, oils, marker pen, resins, nail polish, cigarette Solvent FILA SOLV/FILA
SOLVENT STRIPPER /FABER
ACETONE /UNIVERSALE
TRIELINA /UNIVERSALE
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